GLOSSARY/DEFINITIONS

Acronym

 

Full Term

 

Description

AASHTO

 

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

 

AASHTO develops guidelines and standards for roadway design, including bicycle and pedestrian facilities (http://www.aashto.org).

ADA

 

Americans with Disabilities Act

 

Federal law requiring construction that is publicly funded or open to the public to be accessible.

ADT

 

Average Daily Traffic

 

Averaged count of traffic volume on a particular road or section of road.

CBDG

 

Community Development Block Grant

 

Funding awarded to a municipality for improvements in low-income neighborhoods – can go for a range of facilities, including bicycle and pedestrian.

CIP

 

Capital Improvement Program

 

A government’s 5-year budget plan for expenditures for capital projects (i.e., major projects other than recurring operations costs).

CMAQ

 

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality

 

A section of ISTEA and TEA-21 which funds projects to improve air quality in non-attainment areas (Charlotte is one) – bike and ped projects eligible.

COG

 

Council of Governments

 

Regional councils (16 in NC) that promote largerscale planning – local governments are members and pay dues – Cabarrus and Rowan are in the Centralina COG made up of 8 surrounding counties.

DBPT

 

Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation (NCDOT)

 

The DBPT manages bicycle and pedestrian projects for the state, advises municipalities, creates state bicycle and pedestrian guidelines, and offers education and mapping materials.

EIS

 

Environmental Impact Statement

 

Analysis prior to development of potential impact of a project – required of major projects such as roads.

FHWA

 

Federal Highway Administration

 

An agency of the USDOT – actively involved in promoting safe facilities and education programs, including bike and ped.

FTA

 

Federal Transit Administration

 

Federal agency which provides funding for planning, development, and improvement of public mass transportation systems.

GIS

 

Geographic Information System

 

Database and mapping software such as ArcInfo, ArcView, or TRANSCAD.

ISTEA

 

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

 

Groundbreaking federal legislation that authorized a percentage of transportation money to go to alternative transportation – since reauthorized as TEA-21 – now being considered for reauthorization as TEA-3.

LAB

 

League of American Bicyclists

 

National advocacy group located in Washington, DC.

LOS

 

Level of Service

 

A measure of the facility of traffic flow – LOS standards are just being developed for bicycle and pedestrian traffic.

MPO

 

Metropolitan Planning Organization

 

The Cabarrus-Rowan MPO (CR MPO) is one of 17 MPO’s in NC – an MPO makes recommendations to NCDOT for transportation improvements in its region (Charlotte is in MUMPO, Mecklenburg-Union Urban Area MPO).

MUTCD

 

Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

 

The holy writ for traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings – used by all transportation departments.

NCDOT

 

North Carolina Department of Transportation

 

The central office for NCDOT is in Raleigh – there are also 14 divisions in the state, each with its own office and local engineer. Cabarrus is in Division 10 and Rowan is in Division 9.

NEPA

 

National Environmental Policy Act

 

1969 federal law requiring any project with federal funding or approval must examine impacts on environment, and consider alternatives, before a decision is made.

NHTSA

 

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

 

Agency responsible for safety awareness and education programs – publishes materials for use with all ages and groups.

SOV

 

Single Occupancy Vehicle

 

One car, one person (as opposed to HOV, High Occupancy Vehicle).

STP-DA

 

Surface Transportation Program – Direct Attributable

 

An MPO’s funding from ISTEA and TEA-21 for small local enhancement projects or planning assistance.

STPP

 

Surface Transportation Policy Project

 

Research and Advocacy resource on transportation issues (http://www.transact.org)

TAC

 

Transportation Advisory Committee

 

The TAC is the governing board of the MPO – it consists of elected officials from the local governments in the MPO area plus the area’s member of the BOT (Board of Transportation).

TCC

 

Transportation Coordinating Committee

 

The TCC is the technical advisory committee to the TAC – it consists of staff from transportation, planning, and local transit agencies.

TDM

 

Traffic Demand Management

 

A toolbox of techniques for reducing traffic congestion, from carpooling to HOV lanes to telecommuting.

TEA-21

 

Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century

 

Federal act providing states with funding and guidelines for “enhancements” to transportation, including bicycle and pedestrian facilities (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tea21/sumcov.htm).

TIP

 

Transportation Improvement Program

 

The TIP is a statewide list of new roads and road improvement needs which is updated bi-annually by the NCDOT, based on recommendations from the MPO’s – the TIP is revised every two years, but contains items budgeted for seven years out – bicycle and pedestrian facilities may be “incidental” or “independent” projects within the TIP – you may also see references to the STIP (State TIP) as opposed to the MTIP (MPO TIP).